Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for interim financial statements and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 8 of Regulation S-X of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Accordingly, they do not contain all information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for annual financial statements. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all of the adjustments necessary (consisting only of normal recurring accruals) to present the financial position of the Company as of June 30, 2020 and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the full fiscal year or any future period. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and related notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on May 12, 2020.
Use of Estimates and Assumptions and Critical Accounting Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company operates in an industry that is subject to intense competition and change in consumer demand. The Company’s operations are subject to significant risk and uncertainties including financial and operational risks including the potential risk of business failure.
The Company has experienced, and in the future expects to continue to experience, variability in sales and earnings. The factors expected to contribute to this variability include, among others, (i) the cyclical nature of the industry, (ii) general economic conditions in the various local markets in which the Company competes, including a potential general downturn in the economy, and (iii) the volatility of prices in connection with the Company’s distribution of the product. These factors, among others, make it difficult to project the Company’s operating results on a consistent basis.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents, and accounts receivable. The Company is exposed to credit risk on its cash and cash equivalents in the event of default by the financial institutions to the extent account balances exceed the amount insured by the FDIC, which is $250,000. Accounts receivables potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk. Company closely monitors extensions of credit. Estimated credit losses have been recorded in the consolidated financial statements. Recent credit losses have been within management’s expectations. One customer accounted for more than 16% of revenues in 2019. No customer accounted for more than 10% of revenues in 2020.
Method of Accounting
Investments held in stock of entities other than subsidiaries, namely corporate joint ventures and other non-controlled entities usually are accounted for by one of three methods: (i) the fair value method (addressed in Topic 320), (ii) the equity method (addressed in Topic 323), or (iii) the cost method (addressed in Subtopic 325-20). Pursuant to Paragraph 323-10-05-5, the equity method tends to be most appropriate if an investment enables the investor to influence the operating or financial policies of the investee.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company held no cash equivalents at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
The Company minimizes its credit risk associated with cash by periodically evaluating the credit quality of its primary financial institution. The balance at times may exceed federally insured limits.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are stated at the amount management expects to collect from outstanding balances. The Company generally does not require collateral to support customer receivables. The Company provides an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon a review of the outstanding accounts receivable, historical collection information and existing economic conditions. The Company determines if receivables are past due based on days outstanding, and amounts are written off when determined to be uncollectible by management. As of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company had reserves of $0 and $774,841, respectively.
As of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, one customer represented approximately 30% and 80% of total gross outstanding receivables, respectively.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) valuation method. As of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company had inventory of $102,682 and $0, respectively.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02 “Leases” (Topic 842) which amended guidance for lease arrangements to increase transparency and comparability by providing additional information to users of financial statements regarding an entity’s leasing activities. Subsequent to the issuance of Topic 842, the FASB clarified the guidance through several ASUs; hereinafter the collection of lease guidance is referred to as ASC 842. The revised guidance seeks to achieve this objective by requiring reporting entities to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for substantially all lease arrangements.
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASC 842 using the modified retrospective approach and recognized a right of use (“ROU”) asset and liability in the condensed consolidated balance sheet related to the operating lease for office space. Results for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 are presented under ASC 842.
As part of the adoption the Company elected the practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which among other things, allowed the Company to:
Refer to Note 12. Leases for additional disclosures required by ASC 842.
Fair value measurements
The Company adopted the provisions of ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures”, which defines fair value as used in numerous accounting pronouncements, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure of fair value measurements.
The estimated fair value of certain financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses are carried at historical cost basis, which approximates their fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments. The carrying amounts of our short and long term credit obligations approximate fair value because the effective yields on these obligations, which include contractual interest rates taken together with other features such as concurrent issuances of warrants and/or embedded conversion options, are comparable to rates of returns for instruments of similar credit risk.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. ASC 820 also establishes a fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. ASC 820 describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
The Company evaluates its options, warrants, convertible notes, or other contracts, if any, to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for in accordance with paragraph 815-10-05-4 and Section 815-40-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as either an asset or a liability. The change in fair value is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations as other income or expense. Upon conversion, exercise or cancellation of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the date of conversion, exercise or cancellation and then the related fair value is reclassified to equity.
In circumstances where the embedded conversion option in a convertible instrument is required to be bifurcated and there are also other embedded derivative instruments in the convertible instrument that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument.
The classification of derivative instruments, including whether such instruments should be recorded as liabilities or as equity, is re-assessed at the end of each reporting period. Equity instruments that are initially classified as equity that become subject to reclassification are reclassified to liability at the fair value of the instrument on the reclassification date. Derivative instrument liabilities will be classified in the balance sheet as current or non-current based on whether or not net-cash settlement of the derivative instrument is expected within 12 months of the balance sheet date.
The Company adopted Section 815-40-15 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Section 815-40-15”) to determine whether an instrument (or an embedded feature) is indexed to the Company’s own stock. Section 815-40-15 provides that an entity should use a two-step approach to evaluate whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to its own stock, including evaluating the instrument’s contingent exercise and settlement provisions.
The Company utilizes a binomial option pricing model to compute the fair value of the derivative liability and to mark to market the fair value of the derivative at each balance sheet date. The Company records the change in the fair value of the derivative as other income or expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company had derivative liabilities of $1,449,312 and $190,846 as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
The Company adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method which would require a cumulative effect adjustment for initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings and the comparative information would not require to be restated and continue to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods.
Based on the Company’s analysis the Company did not identify a cumulative effect adjustment for initially applying the new revenue standards. The Company principally generates revenue through providing product, services and licensing revenue.
The adoption of ASC 606 represents a change in accounting principle that will more closely align revenue recognition with the delivery of the Company’s services and will provide financial statement readers with enhanced disclosures. In accordance with ASC 606, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised services. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these services. To achieve this core principle, the Company applies the following five steps:
A contract with a customer exists when (i) the Company enters into an enforceable contract with a customer that defines each party’s rights regarding the services to be transferred and identifies the payment terms related to these services, (ii) the contract has commercial substance and, (iii) the Company determines that collection of substantially all consideration for services that are transferred is probable based on the customer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration. The Company applies judgment in determining the customer’s ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer’s historical payment experience or, in the case of a new customer, published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer.
Performance obligations promised in a contract are identified based on the services that will be transferred to the customer that are both capable of being distinct, whereby the customer can benefit from the service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available from third parties or from the Company, and are distinct in the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the services is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. To the extent a contract includes multiple promised services, the Company must apply judgment to determine whether promised services are capable of being distinct and distinct in the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met the promised services are accounted for as a combined performance obligation.
The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which the Company will be entitled in exchange for transferring services to the customer. To the extent the transaction price includes variable consideration, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration that should be included in the transaction price utilizing either the expected value method or the most likely amount method depending on the nature of the variable consideration. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price if, in the Company’s judgment, it is probable that a significant future reversal of cumulative revenue under the contract will not occur. None of the Company’s contracts as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019 contained a significant financing component.
If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. However, if a series of distinct services that are substantially the same qualifies as a single performance obligation in a contract with variable consideration, the Company must determine if the variable consideration is attributable to the entire contract or to a specific part of the contract. For example, a bonus or penalty may be associated with one or more, but not all, distinct services promised in a series of distinct services that forms part of a single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on a relative standalone selling price basis unless the transaction price is variable and meets the criteria to be allocated entirely to a performance obligation or to a distinct service that forms part of a single performance obligation. The Company determines standalone selling price based on the price at which the performance obligation is sold separately. If the standalone selling price is not observable through past transactions, the Company estimates the standalone selling price taking into account available information such as market conditions and internally approved pricing guidelines related to the performance obligations.
The Company satisfies performance obligations either over time or at a point in time. Revenue is recognized at the time the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring a promised service to a customer.
Disaggregation of Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The following table disaggregates gross revenue by entity for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019:
True Wireless is licensed to provide wireless services to qualifying low income customers in five states. Revenues are recognized when the services have been provided and the government subsidy has been earned.
Surge Blockchain revenues are generated through the SurgePaysPortal multi-purpose software are recognized when the goods and services have been delivered and earned.
Surge Logics is a full-service digital advertising agency and revenues are recognized at a period in time once performance obligations are met and services are provided as customer deposits are received in advance.
ECS is a leading provider of prepaid wireless load and top-ups, check cashing and wireless SIM activation to convenience stores and bodegas nationwide.
Certain amounts are received pursuant to agreements or contracts and may only be used in the conduct of specified transactions or the related services are yet to be performed. These amounts are recorded as unearned or deferred revenue and are recognized as revenue in the year/period the related expenses are incurred, or services are performed. As of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company had $317,148 and $0 in deferred revenue.
Earnings per Share
Earnings per share (“EPS”) is the amount of earnings attributable to each share of common stock. For convenience, the term is used to refer to either earnings or loss per share. EPS is computed pursuant to Section 260-10-45 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. Pursuant to ASC Paragraphs 260-10-45-10 through 260-10-45-16, basic EPS shall be computed by dividing income available to common stockholders (the numerator) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding (the denominator) during the period. Income available to common stockholders shall be computed by deducting both the dividends declared in the period on preferred stock (whether or not paid) and the dividends accumulated for the period on cumulative preferred stock (whether or not earned) from income from continuing operations (if that amount appears in the income statement) and also from net income. The computation of diluted EPS is similar to the computation of basic EPS except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the dilutive potential common shares had been issued during the period to reflect the potential dilution that could occur from common shares issuable through contingent shares issuance arrangement, stock options or warrants.
The following table shows the outstanding dilutive common shares excluded from the diluted net income (loss) per share calculation as they were anti-dilutive:
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 740, “Income Taxes”. Under this method, income tax expense is recognized for the amount of: (i) taxes payable or refundable for the current year and (ii) deferred tax consequences of temporary differences resulting from matters that have been recognized in an entity’s financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the results of operations in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided to reduce the deferred tax assets reported if based on the weight of the available positive and negative evidence, it is more likely than not some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Through December 23, 2014, KSIX and BLVD operated as limited liability companies and all income and losses were passed through to the owners. Through October 12, 2015, DIQ operated as a limited liability company and all income and losses were passed through to its owner. Subsequent to the acquisition dates, these limited liability companies were owned by Surge and became subject to income tax.
Through April 1, 2018, TW operated as a limited liability company and all income and losses were passed through to the owners. In order to facilitate the merger discussed above, TW converted from a limited liability company to a Subchapter C Corporation.
ASC Topic 740-10-30 clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements and prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. ASC Topic 740-10-40 provides guidance on de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure, and transition. We have no material uncertain tax positions for any of the reporting periods presented.
The Company is no longer subject to tax examinations by tax authorities for years prior to 2017.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) was signed into law in March 2020. The CARES Act lifts certain deduction limitations originally imposed by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“2017 Tax Act”). Corporate taxpayers may carryback net operating losses (NOLs) originating between 2018 and 2020 for up to five years, which was not previously allowed under the 2017 Tax Act. The CARES Act also eliminates the 80% of taxable income limitations by allowing corporate entities to fully utilize NOL carryforwards to offset taxable income in 2018, 2019 or 2020. Taxpayers may generally deduct interest up to the sum of 50% of adjusted taxable income plus business interest income (30% limit under the 2017 Tax Act) for 2019 and 2020. The CARES Act allows taxpayers with alternative minimum tax credits to claim a refund in 2020 for the entire amount of the credits instead of recovering the credits through refunds over a period of years, as originally enacted by the 2017 Tax Act.
In addition, the CARES Act raises the corporate charitable deduction limit to 25% of taxable income and makes qualified improvement property generally eligible for 15-year cost-recovery and 100% bonus depreciation. The enactment of the CARES Act did not result in any material adjustments to our income tax provision for the six months ended June 30, 2020.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year’s presentation.
Recent adopted accounting pronouncements
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04 Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (“ASC 350”): Simplifying the Accounting for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”). ASU 2017-04 simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. In computing the implied fair value of goodwill under Step 2, an entity had to perform procedures to determine the fair value at the impairment testing date of its assets and liabilities (including unrecognized assets and liabilities) following the procedure that would be required in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Instead, under ASU 2017-04, an entity should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Additionally, an entity should consider income tax effects from any tax-deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. ASU 2017-04 is effective for annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and an entity should apply the amendments of ASU 2017-04 on a prospective basis. The adoption of ASU 2017-04 did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement”. This update is to improve the effectiveness of disclosures in the notes to the financial statements by facilitating clear communication of the information required by U.S. GAAP that is most important to users of each entity’s financial statements. The amendments in this update apply to all entities that are required, under existing U.S. GAAP, to make disclosures about recurring or nonrecurring fair value measurements. The amendments in this update are effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted the new standard during the quarter ended March 31, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Recent issued accounting pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06 Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. The amendments in Update No. 2020-06 simplify the complexity associated with applying U.S. GAAP for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. More specifically, the amendments focus on the guidance for convertible instruments and derivative scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity. Update No. 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently in the process of determining the effect that the adoption will have on its financial position and results of operations.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting.” ASU 2020-04 provides optional expedients and exceptions to account for contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate if certain criteria are met. The amendments of ASU No. 2020-04 are effective immediately, as of March 12, 2020, and may be applied prospectively to contract modifications made and hedging relationships entered into on or before December 31, 2022. The Company is evaluating the impact that the amendments of this standard would have on the Company’s consolidated financial statements
In December 2019, the FASB issued authoritative guidance intended to simplify the accounting for income taxes (ASU 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes”). This guidance eliminates certain exceptions to the general approach to the income tax accounting model and adds new guidance to reduce the complexity in accounting for income taxes. This guidance is effective for annual periods after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those annual periods. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
Management has evaluated all recent accounting pronouncements as issued by the FASB in the form of Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) through the date these financial statements were available to be issued and found no recent accounting pronouncements issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, when adopted, will have a material impact on the financial statements of the Company.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef